Author Topic: Alexandre Bissonnette: QC Mosque shooter- 29 Jan 2017  (Read 28145 times)

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Offline Infanteer

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Re: Alexandre Bissonnette: QC Mosque shooter- 29 Jan 2017
« Reply #100 on: April 27, 2019, 16:43:57 »
The general working definition of terrorism that I've seen over the last 20 years of observing is:

1.  Violent act (so, graffiti isn't terrorism)
2.  Perpetrated against civilians (attacking armed combatants isn't terrorism)
3.  By non-government actors (states don't conduct terrorism)
4.  For a political purpose (bikers using a car bomb on a rival gang isn't terrorism)
5.  In a public setting to induce fear (clandestine assassinations aren't terrorism)

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Re: Alexandre Bissonnette: QC Mosque shooter- 29 Jan 2017
« Reply #101 on: April 27, 2019, 18:47:37 »
The general working definition of terrorism that I've seen over the last 20 years of observing is:

1.  Violent act (so, graffiti isn't terrorism)
2.  Perpetrated against civilians (attacking armed combatants isn't terrorism)
3.  By non-government actors (states don't conduct terrorism)
4.  For a political purpose (bikers using a car bomb on a rival gang isn't terrorism)
5.  In a public setting to induce fear (clandestine assassinations aren't terrorism)

Just being nit-picky, I assume ‘against civilians’ would include economic/critical infrastructure targets even in the absence of harm to people, so long as it’s still done in order to pressure-through-violence? Destroying or disrupting the right ‘thing’ or process or system or event can be as frightening and disruptive (or moreso) than attacking people.
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Re: Alexandre Bissonnette: QC Mosque shooter- 29 Jan 2017
« Reply #102 on: April 27, 2019, 20:52:52 »
I would argue that states can practice terrorism ...think SOE in WWII and some American and Russian operations today. How else to describe the shooting down of MH17? Or what about some (not all) UAV 'strikes?'
It is ill that men should kill one another in seditions, tumults and wars; but it is worse to bring nations to such misery, weakness and baseness
as to have neither strength nor courage to contend for anything; to have nothing left worth defending and to give the name of peace to desolation.
Algernon Sidney in Discourses Concerning Government, (1698)
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Re: Alexandre Bissonnette: QC Mosque shooter- 29 Jan 2017
« Reply #103 on: April 27, 2019, 20:56:41 »
I would argue that states can practice terrorism ...think SOE in WWII and some American and Russian operations today. How else to describe the shooting down of MH17? Or what about some (not all) UAV 'strikes?'


I would also mention that Pol Pot and his followers conducted an ongoing terror campaign against their own people.
Apparently, a "USUAL SUSPECT"

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Re: Alexandre Bissonnette: QC Mosque shooter- 29 Jan 2017
« Reply #104 on: April 27, 2019, 21:13:43 »
When you discuss terrorism you can look at numerous definitions but in my mind the two relevant ones are the general one:

Quote
Terrorism is, in the broadest sense, the use of intentionally indiscriminate violence as a means to create terror among masses of people; or fear to achieve a religious or political aim

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Terrorism

and the one specific to Canadian Law from s 83.01(1) of the Criminal Code which defines a "Terrorist activity" as:

Quote
terrorist activity means

(a) an act or omission that is committed in or outside Canada and that, if committed in Canada, is one of the following offences:

(i) the offences referred to in subsection 7(2) that implement the Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Seizure of Aircraft, signed at The Hague on December 16, 1970,

(ii) the offences referred to in subsection 7(2) that implement the Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts against the Safety of Civil Aviation, signed at Montreal on September 23, 1971,

(iii) the offences referred to in subsection 7(3) that implement the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of Crimes against Internationally Protected Persons, including Diplomatic Agents, adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations on December 14, 1973,

(iv) the offences referred to in subsection 7(3.1) that implement the International Convention against the Taking of Hostages, adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations on December 17, 1979,

(v) the offences referred to in subsection 7(2.21) that implement the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material, done at Vienna and New York on March 3, 1980, as amended by the Amendment to the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material, done at Vienna on July 8, 2005 and the International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism, done at New York on September 14, 2005,

(vi) the offences referred to in subsection 7(2) that implement the Protocol for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts of Violence at Airports Serving International Civil Aviation, supplementary to the Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts against the Safety of Civil Aviation, signed at Montreal on February 24, 1988,

(vii) the offences referred to in subsection 7(2.1) that implement the Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts against the Safety of Maritime Navigation, done at Rome on March 10, 1988,

(viii) the offences referred to in subsection 7(2.1) or (2.2) that implement the Protocol for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts against the Safety of Fixed Platforms Located on the Continental Shelf, done at Rome on March 10, 1988,

(ix) the offences referred to in subsection 7(3.72) that implement the International Convention for the Suppression of Terrorist Bombings, adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations on December 15, 1997, and

(x) the offences referred to in subsection 7(3.73) that implement the International Convention for the Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism, adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations on December 9, 1999, or

(b) an act or omission, in or outside Canada,

(i) that is committed

(A) in whole or in part for a political, religious or ideological purpose, objective or cause, and

(B) in whole or in part with the intention of intimidating the public, or a segment of the public, with regard to its security, including its economic security, or compelling a person, a government or a domestic or an international organization to do or to refrain from doing any act, whether the public or the person, government or organization is inside or outside Canada, and

(ii) that intentionally

(A) causes death or serious bodily harm to a person by the use of violence,

(B) endangers a person’s life,

(C) causes a serious risk to the health or safety of the public or any segment of the public,

(D) causes substantial property damage, whether to public or private property, if causing such damage is likely to result in the conduct or harm referred to in any of clauses (A) to (C), or

(E) causes serious interference with or serious disruption of an essential service, facility or system, whether public or private, other than as a result of advocacy, protest, dissent or stoppage of work that is not intended to result in the conduct or harm referred to in any of clauses (A) to (C),

and includes a conspiracy, attempt or threat to commit any such act or omission, or being an accessory after the fact or counselling in relation to any such act or omission, but, for greater certainty, does not include an act or omission that is committed during an armed conflict and that, at the time and in the place of its commission, is in accordance with customary international law or conventional international law applicable to the conflict, or the activities undertaken by military forces of a state in the exercise of their official duties, to the extent that those activities are governed by other rules of international law.
(activité terroriste)

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Offline Jarnhamar

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Re: Alexandre Bissonnette: QC Mosque shooter- 29 Jan 2017
« Reply #105 on: April 27, 2019, 21:50:51 »
How would this hold up in Canadian court as a libel or slander suit?

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Re: Alexandre Bissonnette: QC Mosque shooter- 29 Jan 2017
« Reply #106 on: April 27, 2019, 23:11:03 »
How would this hold up in Canadian court as a libel or slander suit?

I don't have enough evidence to say definitively but based on the generalities of the case I would think that six reasonably instructed jurors looking at the circumstances of the act itself and at the background material on his computer would conclude, on a balance of probabilities, that this was most likely a terrorist act. As a result a defamation case would almost certainly fail.

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Re: Alexandre Bissonnette: QC Mosque shooter- 29 Jan 2017
« Reply #107 on: April 28, 2019, 15:24:21 »
Just being nit-picky, I assume ‘against civilians’ would include economic/critical infrastructure targets even in the absence of harm to people, so long as it’s still done in order to pressure-through-violence? Destroying or disrupting the right ‘thing’ or process or system or event can be as frightening and disruptive (or moreso) than attacking people.

Not sure - if a guy blows up an oil pipeline, is he an eco-terrorist, or just a saboteur?  Can sabotage be a subset of terrorism, or are human lives an essential part of the equation?

I would argue that states can practice terrorism ...think SOE in WWII and some American and Russian operations today. How else to describe the shooting down of MH17? Or what about some (not all) UAV 'strikes?'

I used to think this, but was convinced that it opened the aperture up too wide, limiting the utility of the term terrorism, hence why I added "by a non-state actor" to the qualifiers.  Was the Combined Bomber Offensive a campaign of terrorism?  It certainly fit the rubric (less non-state actor).

States can sponsor terrorism, but if state actors are conducting violence against the civilians of other states, it is generally an act of war.  States conducting violence against there own civilians are simply exercising their monopoly on the use of force - it may be disproportionate and indiscriminate, but it is still an exercise of the monopoly none-the-less.

NB.  The literature acknowledges that the definition of terrorism is loose - I only adopted the one I posted above as it seems to be the easiest to apply without running into the "what about this."
"Overall it appears that much of the apparent complexity of modern war stems in practice from the self-imposed complexity of modern HQs" LCol J.P. Storr